Ankle Sprain

Ankle Sprain

Ankle sprain is an injury to the ligament or ligaments of the ankle. It is common at any age. Ankle sprains vary from mild to severe depending on which ligament or ligaments are involved and injured. Depends if the ligament is fully or partially torn or stretched. The ligaments role is for stability of the ankle and limit inversion and eversion (role in or role out of the ankle). Ankle ligament injury is classified as grade 1 mild, grade 2 moderate, grade 3 severe.

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Tailor’s Bunion (Bunionette)

ailor’s bunion is the shifting of the 5th metatarsal outward and the 5th toe inward. Tailor’s bunion is the enlargement of bone on the outside of the foot- 5thmetatarsal head. Tailor’s bunion is not as common as the bunion on the inside of the foot. The enlargement over the side of the bone may also have overlying soft tissue swelling called a bursa. If Tailor’s bunions are not treated they may probably increase over time.

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Morton’s Neuroma

Morton’s Neuorma is thickening of the nerve that occurs between the metatarsal heads at the ball of the foot. The nerve develops an onion bulb swelling before it splits to inner side of two adjacent toes. The nerve gets compressed and causes the neuroma symptoms. The neuroma affects the ball of the foot and radiates into the toes. The most common interspace for the neuroma to occur is the 3rd followed by the 2nd interspace radiating into their associated toes. The swelling can cause a clicking sensation called Mulder’s sign.

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Hallux Abducto Valgus (HAV) - Bunion

Hallux abducto valgus occurs when the big toe angles towards the second toe while the first metatarsal angles the other way. This results in a bump on the side of the joint and angulation of the toe. The enlargement over the side of the joint area may also have overlying soft tissue swelling called a bursa. If bunions are left untreated they will probably increase over time.

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Metatarsalgia is ball of the foot pain.  Metatarsalgia is a catch all term for ball of foot pain. There are different types of ball of the foot pains.  In this article I will address general ball of foot pain.  The patient will have pain of the bones and or joints of the ball of the foot.  I will review general metatarsalgia and future articles I will address more specific ball of foot pain for example; Morton’s neuroma, plantar plate injury, metatarsal fracture, hammertoes.  

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Types of Orthotics


Custom molded orthotics are a device which repositions your feet in a more biomechanically efficient position.  The realignment of the muscles, tendons and joints allows the foot to function more efficiently.  The realignment takes the stress off the painful, malaligned or damaged tissues.  

There are different types of orthotics available. Custom molded structural and functional orthotics and accommodative ones.  Structural/functional orthotics  reposition and support the foot. Enhance biomechanical control of the foot motions and compensate for malalignment placing the foot in  a more stable position and take the stresses off the painful areas of the foot.  Accommodative orthotics reduce pressure under painful boney prominences, redistribute forces off of painful areas and give cushioning and minimal realignment of the foot.

After the history and physical examination of the feet and diagnosis is made custom orthotics may be one of the recommended treatment options.  Custom orthotics are used for many different medical indications; 

  • Structural – pes planus, pes cavus

  • Plantar fasciitis/heel spur syndrome

  • Arthritis

  • Morton’s neuroma

  • Metatarsalgia/periostitis

  • Hallux Abducto Valgus (bunion), Hallux Limitus, Hallux Rigidus

  • Corn/callus

  • Sesamoiditis

  • Diabetes

  • Calcaneal apophysitis

  • Tendonitis –Achilles, Posterior Tibial Tendonitis 

  • Ankle 

  • Sinus tarsi syndrome

  • Tarsal tunnel syndrome

  • Shin Splints

  • Overuse

  • Knee pain

  • Iliotibial band syndrome

  • Low back-SI

  • Hip pain

There are many different types of orthotic materials, corrections, modifications and accommodations available for the Podiatrist to choose from.   The choices depend on many factors; history, symptoms, diagnosis, what the Podiatrist is trying to achieve, foot type, activity, work, shoe type, weight, foot biomechanics/alignment.  

Orthotic shell is made from different materials including; plastics (polypropylene, polynyolene), composite, molds. There are many different cushioning and cover materials available; poron, PPT, neoprene, Spenco, nyplex, P Cell, plastizote, EVA, vinyl, leather, suede.   The prescription for orthotics includes the angles/degrees of correction that are measured and put into the orthotics. Also the Podiatrist decides on the heel and forefoot position, arch height, orthotic width and length.  For different foot issues different modifications and additions are put into the orthotics.  Heel pain would add a heel hole, plantar fasciitis heel  and forefoot accommodation, ball of the foot pain a metatarsal pad or bar, Morton’s neuroma a metatarsal pad or neuroma strip pad, Posterior Tibial Tendonitis or Dysfunction a inner arch flare and added material flare, sesamoiditis a dancer’s pad. Specific heel wedging for knee pain. 

The various types of custom molded orthotics available are;

  • general purpose

  • dress

  • sport general or specific

  • children

  • arthritic

  • diabetic

  • peripheral vascular disease.

There a lot of factors that are taken into account in choosing the right type of orthotic.  Orthotics may be one aspect of the treatment plan a Podiatrist can offer.   It is recommended to see a Doctor of Podiatric Medicine if one is considering orthotics to get a thorough evaluation, examination, diagnosis and treatment plan.